The Nemeton forest

Welcome to the Druid Alliance of North America
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Table of Contents

Useful Terms

Druid– They are the Philosophers, Priests, Teachers, Peacemakers, Facilitators, Mediators, Judges, Ritualists, and Walkers between worlds. They understand how to do a Ritual for celebrations and festivals. One of the essential functions is service to one’s community, showing people how to be peaceful and helping solve conflicts. Getting involved in things to help make a better world.

Druidism – a set of beliefs particular to Druids
Druidry – a set of practices particular of Druids
Druidology – the study of the above
Druidic – Of or relating to the druids.

The etymology of the word Druid

  • Dóru + weyd – Proto Indo European 
  • Dru + wid – Proto Celtic
  • Druwits – Proto Celtic
  • Druits/Druið – Gaulish

The modern term Druid comes from the Latin druidēs (plural) ancient Roman writers considered it a native word from Gaul. The earliest term is from Greek Δρυΐδαι (druidai) (plural). Other texts use the form druidae.

Linguists still do not agree on the meaning of Druidae but they do agree that it is of Gaulish origins. There are many theories of where the word Druidae comes from, here are a few: Pliny the Elder and Strabo both think that it was a cognate of a Greek word meaning an ‘Oak’ (Drus).

Mrs. Nora Chadwick suggests in her book The Druids that it could have originated in a nickname derived from the oak forests – which Pliny associated with them, so the word could mean something like ‘Backwoodsmen’. Other leading etymologists seem to think the word derives from the root words


  • Dru – Meaning Oak Knowledge
  • Wid – Meaning ‘to Know – to see’ (like vid in the Vedas)
  • A close meaning of the word Druid:
  • ‘Those whose Knowledge is Great’
  • Or
  • ‘Thorough Knowledge’
  • ‘Oak Knowledge’

We also have the Gaulish Compound

  • Dru-, Drus, the world tree.
  • Uits, Uid, know.
  • “One who knows the world tree”

Bard – They are the Poets, Artists, Singers, Storytellers, Performers, Musicians, and Keepers of Traditions. One learns to express the world in the most inspirational ways in story and song as that helps us be rooted in the now of nature and the cosmic spiritual world.

Bardism – a set of beliefs particular to Bards
Bardry – a set of practices particular of Bards

Ovate – They are the Seers, Healers, Herbalists, Natural Philosophers, and Spiritworkers. They study divination, herbs, ancestor and spirit work, and the magic all around—seeing that which others can not.

Ovatism – a set of beliefs particular to Ovates
Ovatery – a set of practices particular of Ovates

These are other terms that we find within The Sources (That are mentioned below)

Semnothei (priest – a Latinised Celtic word, literally “reverer of the gods”) used by Diogenes Laertius
Bardi (bard- a poet/composer – a Latinised Celtic word) used by Ammianus, Diodorus, and Strabo,
Vates (poetic prophet/diviner – Latinised Celtic, cognate with the Old-Irish Fáith – Modern-Irish fili – the Welsh Gwawd and the English Ovate) used by Strabo,
Seer (prophet/diviner) used by Diodorus,
Eubages (unknown – possibly a philosopher, teacher) used by Ammianus,
Saronidae (seems to be a synonym of Druids – Latinised Celtic, possibly compounded from sêr, ‘stars’ and honydd, ‘one who discriminates or points out’ and is probably related to the Old-Welsh Seronyddion, ‘astronomer’) used by Diodorus.
Gutuatri (masters, or priests, of particular sancturies – Latinised Celtic, from gutu ‘voice’, perhaps meaning ‘speakers or voice of the gods’) known from a few inscriptions and from Aulus Hirtius’ addition to Commentarii de Bello Gallico which mentions a gutuatros put to death by Caesar.


  • Druið
  • Bardos
  • Uatis


  • Draoi 
  • Filidh
  • Fili
  • Bard


  • Derwydd
  • Bardd
  • Ofydd

Druid Reconstructionism: This is looking at the historical evidence we have that being written, archaeological, Indo-European Comparisons, and things of this nature to understand the beliefs and practices of the Ancient Celtic peoples to bring about the religion to be practiced today. A Druid Reconstructionist would be someone finding the place or taking the Role of a Druid for said Tradition/Religion. The Role of A Druid in these different Celtic Traditions/Customs would vary from Celtic culture as the Druids of a Gaelic tradition would have somewhat different roles from those of a Gaulish tradition and so on. These Druids are very much grounded in their Tradition/Custom. So that would be worshiping their Gods/Goddesses, Learning the Language, Knowing the History, and focusing on the cultural identity.

Druid Revivalism: This is an effort to practice Celtic faith or spirituality in the modern world, picking the best pieces of ancient belief and fusing them with non-Celtic traditions. This would be what most Druid orders are OBOD, AODA, etc. You can find more info at Druid Revival

Celtic Reconstructionism: This is looking at the historical evidence we have that being written, archaeological, Indo-European Comparisons, and things of this nature to understand the beliefs and practices of the Ancient Celtic peoples to bring about the religion to be practiced today.

Celtic Revivalism: This is an effort to practice Celtic faith or spirituality in the modern world, picking the best pieces of ancient belief and fusing it with non-Celtic traditions.

Contemporary: Modern-Neo is intended to distinguish from ancient modern.

Neopaganism: Modern Paganism, also known as Contemporary Paganism and Neopaganism, is a term used to describe new religious movements inspired by or descended from pre-modern pagan beliefs. Despite their similarities, modern Pagan religious movements are diverse and do not share a common collection of beliefs, rituals, or texts. Most scholars who research the phenomenon regard it as a movement divided into various sects. In contrast, others regard it as a single religion with different Pagan faiths as denominations. There truly is no precise definition to define what it is.

Pagan: A follower of a polytheistic or pantheistic nature-worshipping religion.

Paganism: A polytheistic or pantheistic nature-worshipping religion.

New Age: is. A range of spiritual or religious beliefs and practices that rapidly grew in the Western world during the 1970s. Precise scholarly definitions of the New Age differ in their emphasis, primarily due to its highly eclectic structure.

Polytheism: (Many Gods) The belief in or worship of more than one god.

Polytheist: Someone that believes in or worships more than one god.

Pantheism: (All is God) believes that reality is identical with divinity or that all things compose an all-encompassing, immanent god. Pantheist belief does not recognize a distinct personal god, anthropomorphic or otherwise. Instead, it characterizes a broad range of doctrines differing in forms of relationships between reality and divinity, which identifies god with the universe or regards the universe as a manifestation of god. Pantheism, the philosophy that the universe conceived of as a whole, is god. Conversely, there is no God but the combined substance, forces, and laws that are manifested in the existing universe. There are numerous definitions of pantheism. Some consider it a theological and philosophical position concerning god.

Panentheism: (All in God) is the belief that the divine pervades and interpenetrates every part of the universe and also extends beyond space and time.

Panentheism considers god and the world to be inter-related with the world being in God and God being in the world. It offers an increasingly popular alternative to both classical theism and pantheism.

The line between pantheism and panentheism can be blurred depending on varying definitions of god.

Panpsychism: is the view that all things have a mind or a mind-like quality. This is the view that the mind or a mindlike aspect is a fundamental and ubiquitous feature of reality. It is also described as a theory that “the mind is a fundamental feature of the world which exists throughout the universe.” It is one of the oldest philosophical theories.

Animism: is the belief that objects, places, and creatures all possess a distinct spiritual essence. Potentially, animism perceives all things—animals, plants, rocks, rivers, weather systems, human handiwork, and perhaps even words—as animated and alive.

Hylozoism: is the philosophical point of view that matter is in some sense is alive. in philosophy, any system that views all matter as alive, either in itself or by participation in the operation of a world soul or some similar principle. Hylozoism is logically distinct both from early forms of animism, which personifies nature, and from panpsychism, which attributes some form of consciousness or sensation to all matter.

Monotheism (One God): the doctrine or belief that there is only one god.

Monism: is the belief that everything comes from one source.

Metaphysics: the branch of philosophy that deals with the first principles of things, including abstract concepts such as being, knowing, substance, cause, identity, time, and space. The metaphysical idea that reality exists independently of one’s mind and yet can be known is called realism. The metaphysical idea that no mind-independent reality exists or can be known is idealism.

Nemeton: This is a Gaulish word meaning sanctuary, temple, sacred wood.

Grove: means a gathering of Druids. Think of it like a Witches Coven.

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Understanding the Ancient Druids

The information we have to work with to understand the Ancient Druids falls into four categories Greek and Roman writers, Archaeology, Comparative evidence, and Medieval Irish stories.

Greek and Roman writers

Greek and Roman writers from antiquity wrote about the Druids of Gaul and Britain.
Starting with Hecataeus of Miletus from around 550 BC – 476 BC in his work The Journey Around the Earth, we find the first recorded use of the word ‘Keltoi.’ We then have a whole host of writings from an in-depth look at the different tribes of the Continental Celts (Gaulish) by Caesar in his Gallic Wars to plants that are used by them in Dioscorides De materia medica to Pliny Naturalis Historia talking about the Druids mistletoe rite. Now we must remember some of the people that wrote about them used their writings for political gain, and also, they are talking about a Culture of people that they don’t truly understand, so we must always take that into account. For more info check out Accounts of the Ancient Druids and The Historians.

Archaeologists Discoveries

The study of human remains found in graves can help us understand something about the people themselves, such as how large they were in general, how long they generally lived, the rates of infant mortality, and sometimes even the illnesses that plagued them. Archaeologists can also help us understand a little of how they worshiped, where they conducted ceremonies and the objects they offered.

Indo-European culture Comparison

Evidence of how words, especially the Indo-European roots from which they originated, evolved in the Celtic languages. In certain cases, the most speculative evidence we have to work with is linguistic material, as it always depends on hypothetical reconstructions of past actions for which little or no independent evidence exists. To see what similar systems and organizations they have, we may also look at other Indo-European cultures. This, however, may also contribute to erroneous assumptions: even though cultures derive from the same people, they frequently evolve in distinctly different ways, forming various social institutions, religious beliefs and practices, and cultural norms. In other words, the fact that Hindu Brahmins can be proved to be true by an action or belief does not mean that Celtic Druids are similarly true.

Gaelic medieval Christian monks

Irish culture had been overwhelmingly Christian by the start of the seventh century. The earliest written proof for Ireland dates back to the moment when Irish monastic scribes began to keep records of The lives of patron saints, notes of events, laws, and some other common lore inside and outside their monasteries.As time passed, additional material was documented by the scribes, including fragments of pre-Christian myths and what could be considered “secular” tales about past heroes. Druids are listed in some of these materials, but the explanations interpret them from an often negative Christian viewpoint. Even the earliest legal material presents druids as a group whose reputation has become questionable in society: Druids are portrayed as agents of demonic powers in some stories, or they are portrayed as arrogant and untrustworthy. Even if the pictures of druids are reasonably even-handed, we can conclude that the authors and storytellers knew nothing about what the druids did or believed, so that their explanations are unlikely to be entirely precise.

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These are some of the Misconceptions that accrue within the Ancient Druid understanding.

The Druid Astrology

In the 20th century and later on, all astrological systems designated as “Celtic” were invented. The idea of a “Celtic tree calendar” was the invention of Robert Graves, a poet, classical scholar, and writer of the twentieth century. A variety of famous authors have built upon the notion. In the Celtic tradition, it has no foundation. The Druids, however, were said to have monitored the movements of the stars, and a calendar that appears to have periods marked as favorable and unfavorable was measured and drawn up by some competent individuals among the Celtic-speaking Gauls. This Calendar is called the Coligny Calendar. You can find more info here. Medieval Irish hagiography portrays astrologers as Druids. Therefore, they undoubtedly had astrological schemes, but they were lost.


Among Ancient Celtic, the Druids were leaders of the ritual. Thousands of years before Celtic-speaking cultures settled in Atlantic Europe, Stonehenge and other megalithic structures were set up. It is possible that Ancient Celtics did not even use Stonehenge, let alone construct it. There is nothing to suggest Druids used Stonehenge.

Human sacrifice

Classical texts and archaeological evidence show that the druids supervised sacrifices made by The Ancient Celtic. They routinely killed animals and sometimes humans as well. It should be recalled, however, that execution for crimes was a religious reparation ritual for the deity offended by the crime, and many of those “sacrificed” might well have been offenders. Others were prisoners of battle, such as those who were said to have been offered in Anatolia by the Gauls after victorious combat (all captured enemies were killed, but the “best” were singled out and killed ritually). These methods were characteristic of the times, and to some degree, many, maybe even most, ancient civilizations performed animal and/or human sacrifice. In certain cases, even the Romans, who frequently criticized the Gauls for their “barbarous” actions, were known to order human sacrifice, and the gods were regularly invoked as part of the killing that took place in the “games.” of the Coliseum.

Modern Druidry

Druidry movements are typically influenced by the speculative writings of antiquarians of the 18th and 19th centuries, occultists of the 20th century, and the New Age movement of the late 20th century. While they often place themselves as the heirs of ancient cultures, Celtic culture, and language can de-emphasized by these neo-pagan “Druidry” groups and function within Anglo-centric linguistic and cultural contexts. Sometimes, but not always, their theories mimic Wiccan approaches and philosophies that themselves come from occultists of the twentieth century, not ancient practices.

Druids come from Atlantis or Eygpt

This is a fun one, but it has no grounding as the Druids are very much from another Culture of people, that being those of the Celtic lands. Sure the Druids might be similar to some roles in Eygpt, but that doesn’t mean that came from there. It was Iolo Morganwg that basically started this idea for no academic reasons at all. Nowadays, we have many people, mostly the new age groups, that go into this Atlantis theory, saying that the Druids constructed Stonehedge with anti-gravity technology. A lot of those thoughts come from Iolo Morganwg’s The Book of Pheryllt and then have been taken beyond that. These thoughts make very bold claims and overlook the things that we know, making the Druids a highly fantastical character.

Atlantis, Egypt, Isis, or other Egyptian gods had nothing to do with the Ancient Druids.

The Shamans were the Druids

Modern anthropologists have identified similarities between the two. The term “shamanism” comes from the word Shaman, which is recognized by ritual practitioners in some Siberian cultures. Shamanic practitioners’ methods and experiences appear close to those of visionaries of other cultures or systems of belief. It does not adequately value aboriginal peoples’ special qualities to call the Celtic seers shamanic, nor does it accurately characterize the Celtic practices we have. Shamanism’s anthropological description states the commonalities in the perspectives of a large variety of cultures. For anthropologists, this scientific focus on common features can be useful. We could find striking parallels between them and the practitioners of shamanic cultures if we knew more about what the Celtic seers did. However, the evidence available shows that the Celtic rituals and concepts differed from the Siberian shaman’s. Most specifics of Celtic methods have been lost. Still, Celtic seers and ritual leaders may have used tactics that included belief in spirits, contact with an Otherworld, and an association with Otherworldly forces or spirits, including those of aboriginal shamans. Shamans are Shamans not Druids. Druids are Druids. If a Druid and a Shaman met deep in the woods, I’m sure they would have many things to talk about.

A little more info on Shamanism.

This is a term used by academics that has made its way into the greater pagan communities, it has taken from the culture it is connected to and appropriated its meaning, please use a term like Healer, Seer, Spiritworker, or any term connected to your tradition.

To enlighten oneself on the word shaman please read.

Ogham is an Ancient form of divination

Ogham is the writing device used for inscribing stones for use as markers on the landscape by the medieval Irish and some other communities. To mark wood or other items for use as charms, poets probably used ogham. The techniques did not survive if they used Ogham for divination. During the twentieth century, every Ogham divination scheme you read about today was invented.

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What We Know

These are just a few ”what we know,” and within the ones provided, are a bunch more details.

Functions of the Druids – Religious Teachers

It was mentioned by Julius Caesar, The Gaulish Druids “They have philosophers and theologians who are held in great honor and are called Druids… It is a custom of the Gauls that no one makes a sacrifice without the help of a philosopher because they say that offerings to the gods should only be made through the mediation of these men, who are learned in the divine nature and, so to speak, familiar with it, and so to speak, familiar with it.” The Druids’ debate about the heavens and their movement, about the scale of the world and the earth, [and] the workings of nature….’ Ritual leaders must know how and when to conduct suitable ceremonies for each occasion. Druids also conducted “searching into secret and sublime things, and studied Moral and Natural philosophy. They professed the immortality of the soul.” They were the principal teachers and keepers of religious lore: they studied “the strength and power of the immortal gods and these things they hand down [to their students].” Irish Druids led sacrificial and other public rituals on behalf of the community.

Passing of Lore

Pomponius Mela wrote that the druids “teach many things to the noblest of the race in sequestered and remote places during twenty years, whether in a cave or in secluded groves.Traditional lore is passed on orally from teacher to student, elder to the child, master to the neophyte, and many tribal peoples. The Celtics were no different in this respect.The Romans were rapidly becoming people with written words by the time of the Roman conquest, and their authors also derided those who were not literate. The Celtic g peoples started to use letters to hold business records at that time, but the Druids continued to pass on their lore orally.In this, Julius Caesar saw political motivation and wrote, “they have established this practice for two reasons: because they do not wish their way of life to be broadcast to the general public, and because they do not wish those whom they teach to learn by trusting more in letters than in their memory.” A significant point seems to have been overlooked by Caesar: that traditional people often believe in. In religious practitioners’ training, this is particularly important, for the students were not merely learning facts to be fed back in an exam. They were learning a way of life, a role in which their people and the gods would mediate between them. Teachers also believe like they are not merely sharing knowledge in such cases. Rather, when they pass on their own strength and infused wisdom, they serve as teachers, spiritual guides, and something else.

Also, as Irish evidence verifies, an essential part of becoming a Celtic lore-keeper was to learn a large amount of material by heart.In subjects such as history, place lore, genealogy, law, and other traditional material, Filid also obtained various levels of expertise.

The Otherworld

The evidence from classical writers and Irish texts testifies to the druidic belief that another existence followed the present life in an Otherworld. “The druids…declared souls to be immortal.” Ammianus Marcellinus wrote. Pomponius Mela said, “One of their dogmas has become widely known so

they may the more readily go to wars: namely that souls are everlasting, and that among the shades is another life.” If the druids believed in reincarnation or transmigration of the soul is less clear. Diodorus Siculus wrote, “The Pythagorean doctrine prevails among them [the Gauls], teaching that the souls of men are immortal and live again for a fixed number of years inhabited in another body.” Writing in the first century CE, the poet Lucan wrote in lines rhetorically addressing the Druids, “It is you who say that the shades of the dead seek not the silent land of Erebus and the pale halls of Pluto; rather, you tell us that the same spirit has a body again elsewhere and that death, if what you sing is true, is but the midpoint of long life.”

Romans Destroyed the Druids

Evidence shows that the Romans used legislative and military methods to eradicate the Druids and their faith first in Gaul and Britain.Suetonius wrote that the Romans were prohibited to practice the religio druidarum by Augustus. This was the first step, followed by the Druids themselves being suppressed. “Pliny wrote, “It was in the time of Emperor Tiberius that a decree was issued against their Druids and the whole tribe of diviners and doctors.” Suetonius also wrote that the religion of the Druids in Gaul was abolished by Claudius (54 CE).

Tacitus mentioned the destruction of the Druid temple on Anglesey in Britain, describing events in 61 CE, stating that the Roman forces “cut down whoever came into their way and engulfed them in their own fire. After this, a garrison was put in place over the conquered people, and the groves which were dedicated to their savage rituals were cut down.” Celtic sanctuaries that were not demolished were converted from open-air sites to temples in the Roman style; in large houses, for example, springs were channeled into baths. Although each Gaulish and British kin group had previously had its own patron deities, Celtic deities were pushed into Roman groups under the Romans and assigned Roman names under the Romans. In short, the usual places of worship have been demolished or transformed, the ritual leaders have been killed or outlawed, their methods of worship have been forbidden, and new ways have been replaced.

Advisors to the Kings

Dio Chrysostom wrote that the Celts named druids on the Continent, who were also versed in the art of seers and other types of wisdom without whom the kings were not allowed to take or prepare any path, so that in fact it was they who ruled and the kings were their subordinates and instruments of their judgment, thus sitting on golden thrones themselves and living in large houses and houses. It is possible, on the other hand, that the Druids were close advisors. They knew the law and precedent as keepers of lore. Medieval Irish texts suggest that the Druid—and then the Filid—were responsible for the king’s magical protection. In particular, the Irish text emphasizes the Druid’s role in the use of battle magic to disable a king’s enemies.

Druids maintained law

Druids were the primary keepers of lore regarding law and precedent, according to classical writers. “The following statement may concern Druids (in the Latin the antecedent of the pronouns is not clear): “Sometimes when the soldiers are ranged face to face, and swords are drawn, and spears are bristling, these men come between the armies and remain in battle….” Caesar also wrote that the Druids “generally settle all their disputes, both public and private; and if any transgression is committed, Caesar also wrote that the Druids “generally settle all their disputes, both public and private; and if there is any transgression committed, A According to Caesar, the Druids used this power to impose their judgments: “If any private or public person abides not by their decree, they restrain him from the sacrifices. This with them is the most severe punishment. Whoever are so interdicted, are ranked in the number of the impious and wicked; all forsake them, and shun their company and conversation, lest they should suffer disadvantage from contagion with them.” Caesar probably meant, of course, to point out how much influence the Druids exerted in the culture. He continues, “Nor is [the excommunicated] legal right rendered when they sue it, or any honor conferred on them.”Dio Chrysostom, a century later, clearly exaggerated the role of the Druids: “The Celts named Druids, who were likewise versed in the art of seers and other types of wisdom without who

the kings were not permitted to take or prepare any path so that, in fact, it was they who ruled, and the kings were their subordinates and instruments of their judgment.


It was said of Gaulish bards that “these, singing to instruments similar to a lyre, applaud some, while they vituperate others.” Another writer noted, “It was the custom of the bards to celebrate the brave deeds of their famous men in epic verse accompanied by the sweet strain of the lyre.” In Irish Myths, they were storytellers, praise-poets, and genealogists.


Strictly speaking, divination refers to attempts and practices carried out in an effort to gain information that cannot be accessed by ordinary means. Thus, divination can concern the future, or it may concern other problems: for example, the location of a missing person or object. Vates apparently took omens, like seers in other traditional cultures, on the probable outcome of the action being contemplated, discovered the fate of lost people or ships, and sought to diagnose disease and what measures could be taken to achieve healing. The Gauls wrote that “they have soothsayers too of great renown who tell the future by watching the flights of birds and by the observation of the entrails of victims, and everyone waits upon their word.” Cicero said he had met a Gaulish druid and that this man “used to make predictions, sometimes through augury and sometimes through conjecture.”

“they kill a man by a knife-stab in the region above the midriff, and after his fall they foretell the future by the convulsions of his limbs and the pouring of his blood, a form of divination in which they have full confidence, as it is of an old tradition.” they kill a man in the region above the midriff by a knife-stab. After his fall, they predict the future by the convulsions of his limbs and the pouring of his blood, a form of divination in which they have complete trust, as is the old tradition.

Medieval Irish texts tell us a little about the techniques used by Filid, techniques that may owe something to the pre-Christian seers’ practices. However, even the most thorough explanation is short on the kinds of information needed to replicate a ceremony. For instance, some of the most concrete explanations to be found are in a medieval compilation known as Sanas Cormaic (Cormac’s Glossary), although it is sprinkled with the comments of the scribes. It is also often difficult to find out what the scribes said. Nevertheless, what “Cormac” has to say about a system called imbas forosnai is worth considering: The fili chews a bite of a raw pig, dog, or cat meat and then places it behind the door on a flagstone. He sings and offers it to the idol gods over the morsel. He calls them, and the next day, he does not leave. He sings over his two palms, calling the idol gods to him so that his sleep will not be interrupted. He places his two hands over his two cheeks and sleeps; he is watched so that someone does not turn over and interrupt him. Then whatever happens to him in the next nine, eighteen, or twenty-seven days, or until the end of the time during which he can sacrifice, is revealed to him. Thus, it is called imbas: after the palm(bas) on either side of his face or head. As well as the teinm laída, Patrick outlawed this and decreed that all who had performed these would be neither of heaven nor earth since doing so was a rejection of baptism. But in the system of art, the díchetal di chennaib was left, for it is information (soas) which underlies it.The díchetal di chennaib does not involve demon sacrifice; instead, it is instantaneous knowledge from the tips of bones. This passage clarifies that by ordinary means, the fili had special ways of acquiring information not available. The strategies included making sacrifices, invoking spirits or gods, and experiencing some form of trance. Most of the data required to replicate such ceremonies, however, is missing. The seer’s instructor may have partly shared such information one-on-one. By assisting in such ceremonies (perhaps by helping to plan the offerings or being a “watcher”) and ultimately by the first-hand experience, students would have gained additional understanding. Far after, this chain of learning and tradition was broken. Instead of discussing their experiences with their students and guiding them through their development, today, we have language scholars debating how to translate díchetal di chennaib.

They all were not Druids

Not all classical authors use the same words, but three functional groups of religious staff are usually referred to: those who led ritual and resolved legal matters, those who served as seers, and those who told stories and preserved historical lore. The names used by some of the classical writers seem to cognize the Irish words druíd (priests and judges), fátha (seers), and bairdd—druidae or druides, vates, and bardi or bardoi— (storytellers and historical lore-keepers). However, the three categories of druí, fáth, and bard were substituted by other categories in the medieval Irish culture of the Christian age, some secular and others linked to the churches. The Latin specialist or sacerdos (sacart or cruimther in Old Irish)—the Christian priest—took over the position of ritual and sacrifice chief. The breithem became the expert of the judiciary. Fili played the positions of praise-poet, companion of the king, and seer. According to the newer medieval notions of the job, Scribes took over the positions of annalists and genealogists, creating historians’ role. However, it should be kept in mind that there is a great deal of difference in every community, within every priesthood, whether a highly organized group like the Roman Catholic clergy or more versatile groups like North American Native healers. Some people eventually become more “expert” on a subject, and their experience is accepted and called upon by their fellow practitioners and the general population.


The pre-Christian Irish believed in a tripartite cosmology consisting of talam (land), muir (sea), and nem (sky) in this world plus an Otherworld that was an idealized version of this one. Medieval Irish texts repeatedly refer to this theory, which eventually gave way to the world’s Christian worldview, the classic four elements, and heaven (the abode of the Trinity and the angels).

Druid law

These are the Laws of the Druids as it was written down in Ancient times by Diogenes Laertius a Greek Author. This is a literal translation from the source.

“The Druids make their pronouncements by means of riddles and dark sayings, teaching that the gods must be worshipped, and no evil is done, and manly behavior maintained.”

Diogenes Laertius, “Vitæ”, intro., 5

My Modern Version is

The Druid Triad

Dugie Dêuoi – “Honor the Gods”

Gneie ne drucos – “Do no evil”

Biue eni mêdê – “Live in honor”

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These are the Holidays for the Neo Druids. There are eight holidays for the Neo Druids. Four are Solstice/Equinox days, and Four are fire festivals.

These Holidays within the wheel of the Year are a mix of Gaelic and Welsh Holidays.

The Gaelic Holidays are the fire festivals and midpoints between the Solstice/Equinox days. Also, these Four are the Gaelic Polytheist Holidays.


Welsh, they are part of the Druids’ revival period, mainly in Wales. These days are the Solstice/Equinox days.

Alban Arthuan
Alban Eiler
Alban Heruin
Alban Elued

Samhuinn – November 1 – This is the first part of the dark half of the year. Summer has ended, and the last harvest is brought in, and the livestock is butchered and the meat salted and stored. This is the time the gates to the otherworld are open. Celebrating the ancestors and connecting to the spirits of the deceased. The deceased are honored with feasts.

Alban Arthur / Winter Solstice – December 21 Winter Solstice – This is the second of our dark half of the year. This is a time of darkness and decay—this a time of relaxation and reflection. We put light around to bring light into the darkness—a time of burning the winter log and giving gifts.

Imbolc – February 1 – 2 – This is the third part of the dark half. The days are getting longer Signs of growth are in the air as winter comes slowly to an end. The hearth goddess is worshiped when most folks see Brighid as the protector of the hearth and house. A fire is lit in her honor.

Alban Eiler/Eilir / Spring Equinox – March 21 Spring Equinox – This is the first of our balanced days. The night and day are equal at this time. We are heading to the light half of the year as the day becomes longer. Time to plant our ideas and let them grow along with our seeds for the season. This is the transformation for all things as the earth and her creatures shake the cold off and let the warmth come. This time has another name Ostara. Its origins came from Germanic origins and were associated with the goddess Eostre, where the word Easter comes from.

Beltinne – May 1 – This is the first part of the light half of the year. Fertility is in the air, and bonfires are lit. The Veil between the otherworlds is open again, but instead of celebrating death like Samhuinn, it celebrates life.

Alban Hefin/Heruin / Summer Solstice – June 21 Summer Solstice -This is the second half of the light half of the year. This is the longest day of the year—time to celebrate the height of the growing season. The days will become shorter now.

Lughnasadh – August 1 – This is the third part of the Light half. Harvest has started, and festivals of the first harvest are celebrated for the bounty and future bounty of the land. Sacrifices to the land are common during this time.

Alban Elfed / Fall Equinox – September 22 Autumn Equinox – This is the second balanced day of the year. Also, when the dark half of the year starts to take over. The second of the 3 harvest festivals. (Lughnassadh, Autumn Equinox, and Samhain) harvest is here, and we can see the world around us start to change. So we prepare for winter to go and start to wrap all our tasks up. So look at the goals you set and did you accomplish them.

These are just basic definitions of these days.

Recon Druids do not celebrate these days as they are above in the Wheel of the Year. They celebrate their own cultures/traditions/customs holidays.

Also, it’s always good to create your own wheel of the year that way, it resonates much more with you and the land around you.

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Understanding Rites


Altars: A table or flat-topped block is used as the focus for a ritual, especially for making sacrifices or offerings to a deity. Religious rites are performed or on which sacrifices are offered to gods, ancestors, etc.

Shrines: a place regarded as holy because of its associations with a divinity or a sacred person or relic, marked by a building or other construction.

Different kinds of Shrines – God/desses, Ancestors, Places, Nature

An altar is a ceremonial instrument that holds other instruments and allows one to guide and anchor the energy of ones work. It is a sacred workspace.

A shrine is a location where we worship a god, spirit or other objects in particular.

Offering: The act of one who offers. Something offered especially: a sacrifice ceremonially offered as a part of worship. Giving is an expression of our thankfulness and praise to the god/goddesses. It comes from a place of acknowledgment that everything is sacred and must be honored.

Sacrifice: This word comes from the Latin Sacrificium, from Sacer “Holy” and Facere “to make” which means to make holy. Sacrifice is always used in the context of giving something up for a higher purpose “surrender, give up, suffer to be lost”

Meaning something set apart from the secular or profane

set apart or consecrated and offered.

An offering is something given out of one’s abundance or well within one’s ability. A sacrifice is something one gives of oneself self; it is something that actually costs one something.

Ritual Tools – Basics, Druid Rod, Altar Cloth, Sickle/Knife, Bowl/Cup /Cauldron, Ideal, Wand, Crane Bag, Different items to represent the elements.

As one goes on one’s path, these tools will become more, and these tools should be treated with the most respect.

Also, please don’t get discouraged at other’s altars, and all the things they have yours in time will look like that.

Different Druid orders might have a varying degree of meaning for said ritual tools and might have different tools one would need.

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What is Rituals/Rites

Ritual: A religious or solemn ceremony consisting of a series of actions performed according to a prescribed order.

There are many types of rituals out there, and it can get a little intimidating and confusing for someone new. Do not let that be a burden. It just takes time to familiarize the self with the art of ritual. The more one researches it; it is more likely one will not do it. Please do not get caught up in all that. The act of ritual lays within all, not in a book.

Rites: A formal or ceremonial act or procedure prescribed or customary in religious or other solemn use. These would be important moments in one’s life. Rites apply to religious practices. While rituals can be applied to religious practices, they can also be applied to cultural and traditional practices. One could say Rite is a title term, and ritual is a descriptive term

A songwriter can bring awareness to the listeners connecting them to things unnoticed. The same is with ritual as it has no powers on its own. The powers come from the effects it has on those that take part in it. Ritual helps the individual focus, consciousness, intuition, intentions, and many more things. It helps to remind us of the bigger picture of the universe and that we are just a small part of it all. We use rituals to get closer to the gods and the natural world, give thanks, & bring more awareness of the Sacred. 

A ritual is the performing of a task to elevate it for the participants involved.

A rite consists of a ritual, or several rituals, that mark an important milestone in a participant’s life.

The act of ritual is symbolic.

It is an art form that should be honed, just like anything else. Done with skill and the basic layouts can bring meaning and many wonders to the individual’s life. Ritual is diverse; while it is often done outdoors, some choose to ritual indoors. It can be solo or in a group gathering.

Most Druid rituals are done in circles; this symbolizes the unity of each one of us as one people. We honor the four directions and the earth, the sky, the sun, and the moon, the ancestors, the gods, and goddesses. And consists of blessing members within the circle with fire and water. At times, a man and a woman face one another at the circle’s entrance, symbolizing the gateway into which we are brought into the world. Prayers and chants are offered. Ritual clothes are worn, and it is a big celebration with many people.

These are some things that are within each Druid Order and each Druid Grove, and they vary from one to the other. This is a big thing in a group setting, but many do not have people to gather for significant rituals. At the same time, others will not have an outdoor space to have things set up. Some of us live in small areas and lack the means to have a significant flashy ritual. Nevertheless, you still can have rituals. 

Below is a stripped-down version of ritual: just the basics that you can do in a small place with which you can then make it much more to incorporate into the outdoors or with a gathering of people. You can add to it and make it your own.

Purification of the self and space first must wash one’s self and turn anything off that will disturb you. It is essential and often forgotten: Lighting! Turn off any cool lights and have at least one warm light to set the mood & quiet the mind naturally. A quiet mood helps purify oneself. This also should include washing, grounding, and centering to balance yourself before the ritual.

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Basics of a Rite

The more complex and meaningful the ritual, the more elaborate each of these elements becomes.

Main Focus – The goal

The place – where the ritual is located

Items/Gear – What is required to complete the ceremony, including foods.

Roles/Actions – What must be done by those involved in the ceremony

Atmosphere –What it looks like at the ceremony, The lighting to the colors music, singing, or drums. Silence is a sensation and, in respectful silence.

Here are the basic ingredients to help you with the ritual. There are many Rituals one can do, but they all have the necessary steps; this one has the most critical ingredients.

  • Purification/Cleansing
    • This is done before we start our ritual. You can take a shower or wash your hands, face, and, arms, and maybe say some words to purify your thoughts.
  • Opening
    • This is declaring what’s about to happen. Say some words
  • Make a Sacred Space/Sanctifying the space
    • Mark out your space that will be sacred. Do this by either lighting a flame ringing a bell walking in a circle around the space, and declaring the directions. One can do all the above or just one of the things or even what makes you feel comfortable.
  • A prayer of the recipient.
    • Invocation – This is the naming of the Go/desses or spirits you are calling on. So descriptive words about them.
    • Argument – This is the reason you are calling the deities or spirits.
    • Petition – Asking the deities or spirits to aid you.
  • An offering to the recipient.
    • Items given to the deities or spirits for helping you. This is part of the gifting cycle as they give we give.
  • Closing
    • Closing prayer thanking the deities and spirits, putting out the flame, ringing a bell, or any other acts such as thanking the directions.

For an example of a Basic Ritual, you can modify this any way you chose. I filled in some things to help with your creative flow.

  • Purification – Wash/Breathe deeply, clear the mind.
    • Clean Hands
    • Clean Mind
    • Clean Soul 
  • Initiating the Rite – Ring bell, Light candle
    • Ring bell stating you are going to open a sacred space.
    • Enter from the west, walking in a circle stoping in each direction to declare peace, then head to the center and light the fire and say 
    • “I light this candle in the presence of the ( Gods, Spirits, or Ancestors).”
  • Prayer, Inviting the Gods, Ancestors, Or Spirits
    • Honoring the Earth Mother

“Earth Mother, I call to you”
“Mother of Plenty”
“Queen of the Tribes”
“Life Giver”
“I praise you, Earth Mother, for you give us ground to stand on. As we come from you, so shall we return.”
“I call to you as many have before”
“Within your embrace, I have the gift of life.”
“Because of you I am”
“I ask you, you Earth Mother, Highest Mother”
“To keep me grounded”
“So that my roots will feel all that is around”

  • Offerings
    • “In my greatest thanks for all that you are and all that you do for all that you give and all that you will give, I give to you this—- Earth Mother.”
    • Give whatever feels appropriate.
  • Closing the Rite
    • Closing Prayer
    • Thanking the Gods, Ancestors, Or Spirits
    • Thanking the Directions
    • Put out the fire
    • Ring bell

Rituals can be much more involved, offering to the fire, deity, spirits, ancestors. Meditations and prayers can also help with connecting to deities, spirits, and ancestors.

Within Druidry, there are bunches of different rituals for many things.

  • Rites of Passage
  • Handfasting
  • Funerals
  • Coming of age
  • Divination
  • Holiday/Celebrations
  • Births
  • And many more

Now we will share some of the basics of a Rite from some of the Druid Orders

The many Contemporary Druid Orders out there will have varying degrees of differences from one to the other. 

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AODA Grove Opening and Closing Ritual

Set Up

  • Altar in center of grove, covered with a white altar cloth.
  • Incense and incense burner (east of altar).
  • Oil lamp or candle (south of altar).
  • Cauldron half filled with water (west of altar).
  • Platter of earth (north of altar).
  • Golden sickle and mistletoe in West of the circle.
  • Sounding board in the North (for staff-rapping).
  • The elements alternately can take form of four identical cauldrons containing incense, a lamp or candle, water and earth each.
  • The Chief Druid carries a staff; Druid of Air carries a sword in scabbard; Herald, Pendragon and almoner carry staves with golden sickles; Druid of Fire carries matches or a lighter.

AODA Grove Opening and Closing Ritual Outline

  • Declared Opening
  • Call for Peace
  • Purification of the Grove by the Four Elements
  • Statement of Purpose
  • Druid Prayer
  • Awen Chant
  • Banishing Negative Influences for Each Quarter
  • The Center Working (grove meeting, holy day celebration, etc.)
  • Determine That Work Is Done
  • Open grove in the cross quarters and invite the Candidates (NE), Druid Apprentices (SE), Druid Companions (SW) and Druid Adepts (NW) to speak or share with the grove.
  • After they are done “peace” is reiterated for each quarter
  • Oath of Officers to serve the Earth
  • Awen Chant
  • Banishing the Elements/Quarters
  • Procession Out

AODA’s Solitary Grove Opening and Closing

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Order of Bards Ovates and Druids

  • Grounding Meditation
  • Opening Statement
  • Peace to the Quarters
  • The “Universal” Druid’s Prayer
  • Awen Chant
  • Casting the Circle
  • Consecrating the Circle (with water and fire)
  • Opening the Quarters
  • The Working
  • Unity Prayer
  • Awen Chant
  • Thanking the Quarters
  • Unwinding the Circle
  • Ending Statement

There are no ritual tools that are needed for the rituals, and there is no one-size-fits-all method for physically preparing the ritual space for all rituals.

OBOD is not a religion but rather a Spiritual Philosophy.

The God/desses are not usually part of said rituals. Now different Groves might do things a little different and incorporate the God/desses.

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ADF Rite

ADF Ritual Outline

  • Establishing the Grove
  • Procession in
  • Opening Prayers and Offerings to the Earth Mother
  • Grounding meditation
  • Establishing and affirming the Center/“Three Worlds”
  • Opening the gates to the Powers.
  • Offerings to the Powers
  • Preliminary Offerings (to poetic inspiration and to the Outsiders)
  • Offerings to the Three Kindreds
  • Offerings to the Patron Powers
  • Sacrifice and Omen
  • The Blessing
  • Meditation for Blessings
  • The Waters of Life Blessing
  • Other workings (if any)
  • Giving Thanks
  • Giving Thanks to the Powers
  • Closing the Gates
  • Releasing the Grove
  • Procession out

Some groves have simplified liturgies that follow the basic model, as the ADF ritual structure can be very complex. The order of service can vary from one grove to the next.

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RDNA Ritual Outline

  • Opening invocation
  • Humbling before the divine
  • Procession
  • Earth-Mother Chant
  • Drawing sigil in the ground where the priest stands
  • Chants of praise
  • The Sacrifice (plants only)
  • Seeking an omen (augury or aeromancy)
  • Priest & Preceptor call & response of the Waters-of-Life (Waters-of-Sleep in winter)
  • Consecration of the Waters-of-Life or of Sleep (Lord of the Groves invocation)
  • Partaking of the Waters
  • Libation to the Earth-Mother
  • Forum (open discussion or speech)
  • Meditation
  • Closing blessings

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NRDNA (New Reformed Druids) Ritual Outline

  • Earth-Mother Chant
  • Opening invocation
  • Procession
  • Centering (getting into ritual mindset)
  • Individual goals & dedications
  • Statement of beliefs
  • Group goals & dedications
  • Offering & praise (individual attendees make plant sacrifices or bardic offerings)
  • The Sacrifice (plants only)
  • Seeking an omen (usually augury or aeromancy, but others have been used)
  • Statement of needs
  • Priest & Preceptor call & response of the Waters-of-Life (Waters-of-Sleep in winter)
  • Partaking of the Waters
  • Libation to the Earth-Mother
  • Group bonding
  • Meditation
  • Thanking the gods
  • Closing blessings

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HOK Rite

HoK (Henge of Keltria) Ritual Outline

  • Druid Preparation
  • Designating parts (D1, D2, GT: Grove Tender)
  • Fasting prior to ritual
  • Herbal bath or pre-ceremony purification
  • Wear only a robe (mundane clothes block mindset per HoK)
  • Solo meditation
  • Site Preparation (GT)
  • Cleaning ritual area
  • Soothe nature spirits
  • Bless the firewood (if indoors use one special candle)
  • Use natural fire starters (no lighter fluid)
  • Don’t light the fire yet
  • Cover clocks if indoors
  • Disable mobile devices and electronics
  • Altar Preparation (GT)
  • Fill two chalices: one of mead, one of water, covered with patens
  • Light two matching candles for Matron & Patron
  • Three cauldrons: one of water, one of earth, one of incense
  • Sea shell for Manannan
  • Wicker basket (only natural materials, no paint)
  • Branch with a bell or many bells on it
  • A separate sacred branch
  • Sickle
  • Sacred oil
  • Sacred plant extract that is safe for consumption
  • Candle snuffer
  • D1 checks GT’s work
  • GT makes 3 musical signals indicating all is ready, stays at site
  • Processional
  • D1 leads participants single file to ritual site
  • GT anoints D1 and other participants with oil on forehead in Awen pattern as they enter site
  • GT states with each anointing “May you be blessed in Mind / Body | and Spirit \
  • D2 at rear of procession is anointed second to last, then anoints GT
  • D1 & D2 face altar, salute by drawing Keltrian Druid Sigil in the air
  • Making Sacred Space
  • D1 or D2 gives bell branch to volunteer
  • Volunteer invokes druids of the past, present, and future, ringing the branch each time
  • Another volunteer invokes the directions with associated mythical city and legendary object
  • East, City of Finias, Sword of Nuada, and rising sun, rings bell branch
  • South, City of Gorias, Spear of Lugh, midday sun, rings bell branch
  • West, City of Murias, Cauldron of the Dagda, setting sun, rings bell branch
  • North, City of Falias, Lia Fail (stone of destiny), stars or auroras, rings bell branch
  • Center, City of Uisnach, declares all time & space is here & now, rings bell branch and plants it as the World Tree
  • Statement of purpose
  • Unity Song
  • Tree Meditation (think like a tree: you’re a tree now)
  • Parting the Veil: D1 or D2 hands shell to volunteer, Manannan invoked and asked to unite the worlds
  • Triad invocations
  • D1 or D2 hands cauldron of water to volunteer
  • Volunteer invites the ancestors, anoints and blesses attendees on forehead with water
  • D1 or D2 hands cauldron of earth to volunteer

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A Druid Ritual Based on John Greer

John Micheal Greer was the Grand Arch Druid of Ancient Order of Druids in America. He is, a leading Druid and Occultist, writing many books on Druidry and magic.

Your altar should be in the center of a circle

  • 4 small bowls placed on the altar
    • For the North – Half filled with salt or earth
    • For the South – Half filled with sand with a votive candle
    • For the East – Half Filled with sand with incense
    • For the West – Half filled with pure water
      • Distilled water is dead water – Tap water is treated and can contain chemicals. Use well or spring water
      • The bowls represent the four elements
        • Air- East
        • Fire – South
        • Water – West
        • Earth – North
  • We are representing the three druid elements with
    • Incense – Nwyfre
    • Water – Gwyar
    • Salt/Earth – Calas
  • You will also represent three rays of light with the candle.
    • You will sit in the north
    • Three more items are needed
      • A Knife/Sword/Dagger
      • Drinking horn, with wine, mead, juice ~ you pick
      • Robe/Ritual clothes

Opening The Grove

To begin, get your ritual space all set up. Clear your mind and begin.

  • Enter into your circle, walk around it with the sun. Walk around to the north side of your altar and face south.
    • Raise your palm to salute the sun saying.
  1. Let the powers attend as I am about to open a grove of druids in this place. The first duty of druids assembled in the sacred grove is to proclaim peace to the four quarters of the world, for without peace, our work cannot be done.
  • Take your sheathed blade and go to the east. Face outward, raise the blade head level and horizontally—left hand on sheath right on the hilt.
    • Pull the blade halfway from the sheath, push it back in, saying.
  1. I proclaim peace in the east.
  2. Lower the blade and proceed to the south and repeat all
  3. I proclaim peace in the south.
  4. Go to the west; repeat the steps.
  5. I proclaim peace in the west.
  6. Go to the north; repeat the steps.
  7. I proclaim peace in the north.
  • Now return the blade and go to the north.
    • Facing south across the altar saying.
  1. The four quarters are at peace, and the work of the grove may proceed. Let the grove and all within it be purified with air.
  • Now head to the eastern part of the altar, pick up the bowl with the incense, and carry it to the eastern edge.
    • Walk-in a circle around the circle’s outer edge; you can move your arm in a slow sweeping or side to side motion to help widen or spread the smoke. 
    • Visualizing that the smoke is purifying and blessing everything in the grove. 
    • Making your way back to the east to return the bowl saying.
  1. Let this grove and all within it be purified by fire.
  • Go to the southern part of the altar, pick up the bowl with the candle – without sweeping or excessive motions.
    • Repeat above but this time – visualize fire purifying everything in the grove saying.
  1. Let this grove and all within be purified with water.
  • Now take the bowl with water and go to the western edge. Repeat the above this time, visualizing water purifying saying.
  1. Let this grove and all within be purified with the earth.
  • Now take the bowl with earth to the northern edge repeat visualizing earth purifying everything.
  1. At the north of the altar say.
  2. I invoke the blessing of the mighty ones with the words that have been the bond among druids.
  3. Grant o holy ones thy protection
  4. And in protection strength.
  5. And in strength understanding.
  6. And in understanding knowledge.
  7. And in knowledge, the knowledge of justice.
  8. And in the knowledge of justice, the love of it.
  9. And in that love, the love of all existences.
  10. And in the love of all existences, the love of
  11. Earth our mother and all goodness
  • When finished, say “Ah-oh-en” three times.
  1. Awen Awen Awen
  • Feel that word flow through all in the grove.
  • Now take the seat in the north. This completes the opening of the grove.

Closing the Grove

  • When your work is complete, take a seat in the north and return to stillness in your mind. At the north side of the altar, face across to the south and say.
  1. Let the powers attend as I am about to close a grove of druids in this place. Peace prevails in the four quarters and throughout the grove. Let any power remaining from this working be returned to the earth for its blessing.
  • Ritual work leaves energies behind so visualize the energies flowing towards the altar down into the center of the earth. Concentrating on that till the space feels clear of energy, say.
  1. I invoke the sword of swords.
  2. Draw your blade to the sky and say
  3. From the rising sun, three rays of light.
  4. From the living earth, three stones of witness
  5. From the eye and mind and hand of wisdom
  6. Three rowan staves of all knowledge
  7. From the fire of the sun, the forge
  8. From the bones of the earth steel
  9. From the hand of wise, the shaping
  10. From these Excalibur
  11. By the sword of swords, I pledge my faithful service.
  12. To the living earth, our home, and mother
  • When finished, say “Ah-oh-en” three times.
  1. Awen Awen Awen
  • Raise your right hand to salute the sun and walk around the altar to exit.

Any ritual can be easily modified and put the “meat” of what you are doing in between the Opening and closing Offerings to the gods, spirits, ancestors, etc.

Remember, there are many Druid Rituals out there do not overthink it.

For those that are Recon Druids, you would want to make your Rituals in tune with your Tradition/Custom. So if one is a Recon Gaulish Druid or Gaelic Druid keep things in those realms. Using the language as much as possible and Invoking those God/ddesses keep the culture in the ritual.

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The Gods and Goddesses

The basics of the different kinds of God/desses and the different god/desses of the various Celtic Realms.

Now we will put some definitions below. Let us remember these will be very basic definitions, and also, a lot of these types of god/desses cross over and overlap with one another. And the different Celtic Realms will have varying degrees of differences in defining. I used the most universal words to try and explain these definitions to the reader. So basically, keeping out my understanding based on my Customs.

Primordial Gods – These are god/desses that have always been since creation—things like earth, fire, air, sea, sky, night, day etc.

Psychopomps – Meaning Guide of Souls. They guide souls from this plane to the next.

Liminal – These are God/desses that preside over doorways, thresholds, gates. They are crossers of boundaries. These god/desses sometimes overlap with Agriculture, Seasonal, and Dying and Rising god/desses.

Celestial – Celestial gods can overlap at times with primordial god/desses. Celestial god/desses are god/desses of the sky. Some say Celestial gods personify or control the cosmological bodies of the universe.

Tutelary – They are god/desses who is a guardian, patron, or protector of a particular place, geographic feature, person, lineage, nation, culture, or occupation.

Craft/Civilized – These are god/desses of crafts. They can represent civilization, the achievements of man, and the order it brings.

Triple – is three god/desses that are worshiped as one.

Nature – They are most often elder god/desses, who predate human civilization and represent animalistic desires and instincts. They are more than simply the gods of natural features.

Death – These god/desses can cause death and can also be there to release the soul. They are not always the ones you sit in the otherworld.

They are not always considered malevolent they are just another part of the cycle of life.

Love god/desses

Marriage god/desses

Healing god/desses

Lunar god/desses

Fertility god/desses

River god/desses

Hunting god/desses

Warrior god/desses

Gods of the Vine

Mother Goddesses

War god/desses

There are many different kinds of god/desses out there. These are just a few examples.

How to connect to a god/desse

There are many ways to go about this. Sometimes the god/desses will reach out to you, and you might reach out to them. There is no right or wrong way. This will not be a this is how to do it but more of suggestions to help you.

Ask yourself some Questions.

Are there any ‘themes’ that call to you?

Themes meaning, poetry, agriculture, forests, hunting, death etc call to you?

Find the god/desses with dominion over that theme, make some offerings, and go from there.

There are stories one can read from the different Celtic realms (Well only the Gaelic and Welsh have stories) and see if any of those connect with you.

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What to Offer

Colored or Scented Candles
Cooked Foods

Natural iteams – feathers, bones, stones, flowers, leaves

Intangible offerings – Picking up trash, Art in its many forms, Gardening, Devoting one’s time.

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What is Celtic Polytheism?

Polytheism can be simply defined as the belief in multiple gods. It has historically been conflated with paganism, however that is not the case. While paganism has an emphasis on magic and nature spirituality and often as a solitary practice, polytheism is very much about community and animism.

Being part of a community, doing your part and taking care of others within your community is a big part of polytheism, as it is honoring the gods through your acts and virtues.

Animism is a big part of polytheism. While you can have animism as a belief by itself, animism is intrinsically intertwined with polytheism. Animism is the belief that spirits are all around us and animate the world. Every rock, tree, force of nature, and community have a spirit to them.

It can often be difficult to tell the difference between spirits and deities, if there really is any. But to the polytheist, they are treated with the same honour and respect.

Celtic Polytheism is often understood as being Irish, Scottish, and Welsh. However, it goes much deeper. In the polytheistic sense, similarly as in the historical and archeological sense, Celtic goes far beyond the definition of the Modern Celtic Nations. Celtic is a shared yet not homogenous culture, language and belief system.

Celtic Polytheism is an umbrella term speaks of two main groupings and a variety of religious identities within. This is no single Celtic pantheon. Instead, depending on the geographical area, each tribe/nation (outside of Ireland) have a different grab-bag of worshiped deities.

The two main groups are Continental which includes Gaulish and Celtiberian, and Insular which includes Irish, Scottish Gaelic, Manx & Brittonic/Brythonic (along with the various traditions within Brittonic, such as Welsh, Cornish, etc.). (edited)

Celtic Reconstructionism is the polytheistic, animistic, and cultural revival of the faith & practices of the ancient Celts, as it came in it’s many forms.

Celtic identity is not based on ethnicity or bloodline. Celtic is described by historians and archaeologists as the religious, cultural, and spiritual practices shared by many through Europe as far back as the Iron Age.

Reconstructionism is about rebuilding the language, as well as the cultural & religious practices of the varied Celtic groups by using primary sources such as historical accounts from neighboring cultures, and archaeological evidence.

While we don’t shy away from breathing new life into these practices through new innovations to our personal practices, we respect these primary sources as foundations we all agree and build upon.

It is also important to respect the living Celtic cultures, and not to undermine the strides they’ve made to revive their languages and cultural traditions. (edited)

Celtic is both an ancient and modern identity. In the context of Celtic Polytheism, it means the ancient beliefs of the wider Celtic groups.

There are three major classifications that fall under the Celtic Polytheism umbrella. These are Gaelic, Brittonic, and Continental. Gaelic & Brittonic are sometimes classified together under the term insular.

This is further broken down to the specific beliefs and traditions. For example, Gaelic includes the Scottish Gaelic, Irish Gaelic, and Manx faiths.

The umbrella classification of Celtic polytheism includes many similarities between each of the separate beliefs, cultures, and languages but ultimately they are unique.

Now we will be getting into the different god/desses of the Celtic realms.

I use Celtic Realms as an umbrella term for the Continental, Brittonic, Gaelic, etc.

These will be simple descriptions and of course, there is much more to all these god/desses.

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The Gauls

Their lands spanned much of Western and Central Europe. From Northeastern Spain to Turkey, and from Southern Britain (though later), down to Northern Italy. Notably, what is now France, Southern and Western Germany, Belgium, Luxembourg, and Switzerland. Independent from around the 5th Century BCE, until their defeat and conquest by the Romans in 52 BCE.

The Gauls were a people who are defined as such by both their Gaulish language (in the Celtic family of languages) and material culture. They were bearers of the LaTenê culture of the Iron Age in Western and Central Europe. Never a people with a singular leadership, they consisted of dozens of tribes. Though a Gaulish identity had begun to develop, due to a greater connection by trade and infrastructure, particularly with the Greeks, Etruscans, and Romans, they were never fully unified.

Dêuoi (Worshiped Beings)

Sucellos He is known for His large mallet and depicted holding a cup along with it. He is associated with the Underworld, as He is shown with dogs, and also with agriculture. Especially that of growing wine.

Nantosueltâ A Goddess of valleys and domesticity with Underworld associations as She is depicted with a raven. She is also shown with a house on a pole and a beehive.

Carnonos Associated with trade, wealth, bidirectionality, liminality, and possibly large rivers. He is depicted antlered and with a torc, sometimes with animals and a ram horned serpent.

Eponâ Associated with horses, the land, sovereignty, fertility, harvests, domesticity, and war (particularly cavalry). As well as travel between realms. She is often depicted with horses, and also a key, and fruits of the harvest.

Taranis Associated with thunder (His name means that), lightning, the sky, rain, truth, strength, order, protection, worshipped often by the common folk. He is known for wielding a club/thunderbolt and a wheel, which represents the sky, truth, and cosmic order.

Sironâ She is shown with a star diadem, snakes, and eggs. She is associated with wells and healing. Presumably with the night, dawn, or dusk due to Her name meaning (astral, or divine star).

Lugus Associated with commerce, wealth, oaths, and warfare. He is also depicted with three faces, which could signify an association with travel. It is also thought that He is a God of skills and trades.

Rosmertâ Her name means “Great Provider,” depicted alongside a Gaulish Mercury (Lugus?). She holds a purse and cornucopia. Thus, She is a Goddess of fertility and wealth.

Belenos A widely worshipped god who is associated with light, healing, and springs. He also governs war and was said to have defended a city (Aquileia, Italy) during a siege. He is also associated with horses and the solar wheel. Not necessarily a Sun God, but a God with a solar connection.

The above is just a very small list you can find out more over at

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The Celtiberians

Was a group of celts and Celticized people located in the central-eastern Iberian Peninsula during the later centuries of BC. The Iberians were most likely Spanish natives who occupied the entire Iberian Peninsula, hence the name Iberia. The Greeks and the Phoenicians or Carthaginians, on the other hand, had migrated to Spain very early in the first millennium BC, especially along the south east coasts. Some Iberians connected with the Celts to form new tribes known as Celtiberians by the Romans.

We must remember there is going to be an overlap with Iberian/Celtiberian/Roman /Hispano

Scholars back in the day disagreed on what is what, and still to this day, they do.

There is not much out there on all this, so it is truly up to those devoted to recon all this.

You will find some of the Gaulish god/desses in this area as well.





Ataécina chthonic goddess of the Underworld

Candamius Romano-Iberian sky god.

Cariociecus Romano-Celtic god of war, who was equated with the Roman god Mars

Dercetius Romano-Iberian mountain god

Duillae is the goddesses of fertility and vegetation. They appeared as pair of mothers nature. The Duillae appeared similar to the Matres.

Endouellicus was a Romano-Iberian god of the oracles and of healing.

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Brythonic polytheism refers to the cultural and religious practices of the Brythonic-speaking people of Britain.

Indigenous Celtic people that lived in Britain from the British Iron Age until the Middle Ages, when they split into the Welsh, Cornish, and Bretons (among others). They spoke the ancestor of the modern Brittonic languages, the Common Brittonic language. Now a Brittonic Polytheist would worship a wide range of god/desses from Roman Britain to later tales from the Welsh as within these tales there is an oral tradition. They also share in a lot of god/desses from Gaul. There seems to be a lot that is shared between the Brythonic Peoples and the Gauls.

There is a lot of overlap between Gaulish and Brythonic polytheism, which is partly due to historical trade, intermarriage, and cross-migration between the two sects.

Now Brythonic polytheism includes Welsh, Cornish, Breton, and Cumbric polytheism. The last two I know nothing about, so if one has sources and all that, let us know.

Abandinos – His name may mean ‘Andinus of the River’, or ‘The god who sings’. Abandinos was worshipped in East England, and is known to us from an inscription on a single bronze feather.

Alletius – Theorized to be a warrior and smith god, due to the inclusion of an anvil by his name on urn fragments. Worshipped in Northeast England on Hadrian’s Wall.

Ancasta – Based on an inscription found in Southern England, she may have been a regional or tutelary goddess. Her name has been associated with the Proto-Celtic word for ‘swift’.

Andescociuoucos – His name is theorized to mean ‘the great activator’, suggesting commerce, arts, and craftsmanship. The Romans used the epithet Mercury to relay these qualities- a dedication to him was found Southeast England by the Roman city Camulodunum.

Andicrose – A rural nature god whose name is found on a silver spoon inscription. He was given the epithet Faunus, a Roman pastoral and nature deity. This suggests Andicrose’s domain was farming or animal husbandry.

Andrasta – A goddess of victory and war worshipped in East Anglia, territory of the Iceni tribe. Andrasta was called upon during an augury rite by the Iceni Queen Boudica during her rise against Roman occupation in 60 AD.

Anextlomaros – His name means ‘great protection’. A deity found in both Northeast England as well as Gaul. He was given the Roman epithet Apollo, suggesting these protective qualities extended to healing.

Antenociticos – A god of military affairs and intercession, he was worshipped in Northeast England on Hadrian’s Wall. He is depicted with a torc and pieces of hair curled into the shape of horns.

Arnomecta – Her name is possibly a deviation on Arnemeze, a goddess of healing springs located in the East Midlands of England. Arnemeze gave her name to the nearby Roman town Aqua Arnemetiae.

Ausecus – A farming and pastoral deity local to Southeast England. An inscription on a silver spoon reads, ‘Property of the god Faunus Ausecus‘, denoting he was given the epithet Faunus by the Romans.

Barrecis – His name likely means ‘supreme one’. The Romans gave him the epithet Mars, suggesting he governed warfare as a supreme father or protector. He was worshipped in Northwest England close to Hadrian’s Wall.

Belatucadros – Meaning ‘fair shining one’ or ‘fair slayer’, Belatucadros was venerated mainly by those of low social status or rank. Sometimes given the epithet Mars, he was worshipped by both Briton and Roman soldiers working along Hadrian’s Wall.

Blotugus – A rural nature deity whose name was inscribed on a silver spoon found in East Anglia. He was given the Roman epithet Faunus, which suggests pastoral activities and farming.

Braciaca – The root of her name is thought to mean ‘malt’, and thus she has been interpreted as an intoxicating goddess of beer. The Romans gave the epithet Mars, perhaps hinting at agricultural and virile aspects to her domain. An inscription to her was found in the East Midlands of England.

Bregans – Thought to be the consort or partner to Brigantia, a dedication to Bregans was found in Northeast England. Unfortunately not much else is known about him.

Brigantia – A goddess of war, healing, water fertility, and prosperity. Her name means ‘The High One’, and many dedications to her have been found surrounding Hadrian’s Wall.

Callirius – A woodland and forest god. His name derives from the Celtic root *kallī (grove, forest) and likely means ‘King of the Forest’. The Romans gave him the epithet of the woodland deity Silvanus.

Cocidius – A god associated with war, the forest, and hunting. His area of worship was Northwestern England, where he was depicted both as a soldier and hunter. He was sometimes given Roman epithets such as Mars, Silvanus, and the Celtic Vernostonus (alder tree).

Condatis – A god of rivers, confluences, and meeting places. His name means ‘God of the Confluence’. He was given the epithet Mars by the Romans, suggesting protective and healing aspects to his domain.

Corotiacos – A war deity local to Southeast England, statue remains suggest a link to cavalry as well. He was associated with the Roman god Mars.

Coventina – A tutelary goddess of the river and spring.

Cranus – A rural farming or pastoral god, his inscription is found on a silver spoon. The Romans associated him with Faunus, a god of pastures and nature.

Cuda – A fertility goddess who is depicted with Cucullati, hooded fertility spirits found in threes throughout Britain. It is theorized her area of origin, the Cotswolds, derives from an Old English name meaning ‘Cuda’s woodland’.

Cunomaglos – His name means ‘Hound Lord’ or ‘Wolf Lord’, and is associated with hunting, healing, and canines. He was part of a large healing cult in the Cotswolds through which he was given the Roman epithet Apollo.

Epona – An equine and fertility goddess worshipped throughout Britain and Gaul.

Ialonus Contrebis – His name means ‘God of the meadowland’, a deity of meadows and clearings found in Northwest England. Contrebis may mean ‘house’ or ‘those who dwell together’, and could be a local epithet.

Maponos – A god of youth, music, magic, and hunting; his name means ‘Divine Youth’ or ‘Great Son’. His cult centre was in Southwestern Scotland, but he was also worshipped throughout Gaul. The Romans associated him with Apollo.

Matres – The Matres were Mother Goddesses worshipped across Europe in regional forms. They are almost exclusively depicted in groups of three, and held domain over many aspects: family, midwifery, protection, sacrifice, and perhaps fate. The Matres in Britain have been found inscribed in a few locales:

  • Alatervae Matres – An altar inscription dedicates to them as ‘Alatervan Mothers and the Mothers of the Parade-ground‘. These Matres are local to Edinburgh, Scotland.
  • Britannae Matres – Matres local to Southern England, Britannae possibly referring to the Roman province of Britannia.
  • Ollototae Matres – Ollototae may mean ‘from other folk’, suggesting these Matres were worshipped by many different peoples who would have been occupying Northern England during the Roman period.

Matunos – His name means ‘Great Bear’, with *matu- being the Proto-Celtic word for ‘bear’. He was worshipped in Northern England.

Medigenus – A rural farming god attested on a silver spoon inscription. He was given the epithet Faunus by the Romans suggesting associations with nature and pastoral activities.

Medocius -Although his name was found on inscription in Southeastern England, the devotee claimed to be Caledonian. Thus Medocius may be a tutelary deity from Northern Scotland. The Romans gave him the epithet Mars.

Olludius – A god of prosperity and protection local to the Cotswolds but found as far as Southern France. He was depicted with cornucopia, showcasing his function as a provider and guardian. The Romans associated him with Mars.

Nodons – A god of healing and hunting associated with the Severn Estuary in Southern England. His temple was used as an incubatio, a place where the sick could experience healing dreams. The Romans gave him the epithets Mars and Silvanus.

Ocelus – A protective warrior deity local to the Silures tribe from South Wales. He was also venerated in Northwest England. Ocelus was associated with the healing warrior deities Mars and Lenus, perhaps hinting at his role as healer and protector.

Rigisamus – His name means “the most royal” or “king of kings”, a deity possibly connected to protection, war, and sovereignty. He was worshipped both in Britain and Gaul. The Romans gave him the epithet Mars.

Rigonemetis – His name means “King of the Sacred Grove”. A deity associated with guarding sacred groves and spaces. The Romans gave him the epithet Mars to highlight these protective aspects.

Riocalatis – His name means ‘Hard King’, a deity invoked alongside Toutatis and Cocidius in Northwestern England. It is likely he was a regional protector or warrior god.

Satiada – A goddess attested near Hadrian’s Wall, found on an inscription dedicated by the mysterious Textoverdi tribe. Very little is otherwise known.

Setlocenia – Her name means “long lived one”, a goddess invoked as Setlocenia Labareus in Northwest England. Labareus references the Celtic river name Labara, ‘the babbler’.

Sulevia – A goddess worshipped often in plural forms (Suleviae), much like the Matres. They are invoked throughout Britain and Gaul, their name thought to mean “those who govern well”.

Sulis – Goddess of the thermal spring in Bath, Southwest England. She was invoked for her life-giving and healing properties. The Romans syncretized her with Minerva, hinting that she may have been a goddess of wisdom as well.

Taranis – His name means ‘Thunderer’. Worshipped across the ancient Celtic world, Taranis ruled over lightning, the sky, rain, truth, strength, order, and protection.

Toutatis – A tribal protector god known throughout Britain and Gaul, name meaning “of the people”. There was likely a different Toutatis for each tribe, making them similar to the Materes. Toutates were often associated with Mars and Mercury by the Romans.

Tridamus – A god whose name may derive from the Proto-Celtic words for “three” and “bovine”. Thus, he could be a bovine or bull deity. He was worshipped in the Welsh Marches and Midlands of England.

Verbeia – A goddess of the River Wharfe in Northeast England. A possible image of her exists, where she is depicted holding snakes in each hand.

Vernostonus – A god of alder trees, whose name may be derived from the Proto-Celtic *Werno-stonos which means ‘the Groaning of Alder-trunks’. He was associated with Cocidius in one inscription, suggesting a link between the two.

Veteris – A mysterious but widely attested god throughout Britain. Sometimes he is attested as a singular god, other times in multiple. He is associated with boars and snakes, signifying links to hunting, war, and death.

Vinotonus – An obscure agriculture and wilderness god local to Northeast England. The Romans associated him with Silvanus.

Brythonic Resources

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Now Brythonic polytheism includes Welsh, Cornish, Breton, and Cumbric polytheism. The last two I know nothing about, so if one has sources and all that, let us know.

Welsh Polytheism could fall under Brttonic Polytheism. It can also be its own thing.

The Welsh were a group of people living in Wales that split from the Brittonic peoples.

Many Brythonic territories fell under Anglo-Saxon control after the Anglo-Saxon invasion of Britain; however, Brythonic Celtic religion was largely preserved in Wales. Since several Welsh myths were later Christianized, determining if the characters were actually gods, mortals, or historical figures may be challenging.

Welsh Myths and Stories

The Four Ancient Books of Wales –

The Mabinogion –

Gofannon – A Smithing God.

Ceridwen – A goddess of rebirth and transformation.

Amaethon – god of agriculture

Creiddylad – goddess of flowers and love

Gwydion – magician, trickster, and hero in Welsh mythology

Agrona – goddess of the river Ayr, and of war and slaughter

Arawn (Arawen) – king of the otherworld realm of Annwn

Branwen – goddess of love and beauty

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A people from Ireland, Scotland, and the Isle of Man. They’re connected to the Gaelic languages, a subset of Celtic languages that includes Irish, Manx, and Scottish Gaelic. The worship of the deities, gods, and nature spirits of the Gaelic-speaking lands: Ireland, Scotland, and the Isle of Man, is known as Gaelic Polytheism. Some are also trying to reconstruct Irish polytheism, Manx polytheism, and Scottish polytheism. But all those would fit under Gaelic polytheism.

There are many different views within the Gaelic community. These god/desses will be viewed differently depending on the tradition/custom.

An Daghdha – fertility, agriculture, manliness and strength, Knowledge, and hospitality.

Goibhniu – smithing god, one of the Trí Dée Dána

Cailleach – Goddess of disease and plague. ‘Veiled One’, ‘Dark Mother’. Associated with Samhain and winter.

The Morrigan – Goddess of war, death, prophecy. ‘Great Queen’, ‘Phantom Queen’.

  • The Morrígan is often considered a triple goddess, but this triple nature is ambiguous and inconsistent. These triple appearances are partially due to the Celtic significance of threeness. Sometimes she appears as one of three sisters, the daughters of Ernmas: Morrígan, Badb and Macha. Sometimes the trinity consists of Badb, Macha and Anand, collectively known as the Morrígna. Occasionally, Nemain or Fea appear in the various combinations. However, the Morrígan can also appear alone, and her name is sometimes used interchangeably with Badb.

Anu – Mother Goddess. Goddess of fertility, prosperity, and the earth. Associated with the Paps of Anu.

Dian Cecht – God of healing, medicine, magic

Airmeadh – goddess of healing and herbalism

Lugh – oaths, truth, law, rain, and the crafts

Irish Myths –

Scottish Myths –

Manx Myths –


Living Virtuously – DJ Mogh Bríghde

Please Note: While there are some good resources/information on Tairis, the site is owned and operated by Gaol Naofa: a known TERF (transgender exclusionary radical feminist, I.E. they’re transphobic) organization. Take the information from here with a grain of salt and come to your own conclusions.

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Proto-Indo-Europeans (PIE)

Proto-Indo-Europeans were the original Indo-European society. Many of the things that we have are hypothetical and controversial. But archaeological and linguistic evidence points us in the direction to understand a great deal. Around 6,000 years ago, in what is thought to be someplace between Europe and Asia, most scholars think in the steppes north of the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea.

You can read more about the Kurgan hypothesis to understand more of the Cultural spread. Their descendants migrated through most of Europe, Persia, and northern India. They became the Celtic culture in Central and Western Europe, the Germanic culture in Northern Europe, the Baltic and Slavic cultures in Eastern Europe, the Roman culture in Italy, the Ancient Greek culture in Greece, the Iranian/Zoroastrians culture in Iran, and the Vedic Hindu civilization in India.

Based on the linguistic research of Indo-European-speaking people’s languages, the Proto-Indo-European Religion is reconstructed.

Dyḗus Pḥatḗr – (Sky Father) – He is a god of the sky in the daylight. During the day, he is active, and the Sun is his bright eye. He co-created the Thunder God with Mother Earth.

Haéusōs – (Dawn Goddess) – She always appears in the sky before the SUN GOD. She is always associated with Dawn, exposing herself to the daily arrival of light into the world, driving away oppressive darkness, chasing away malevolent demons, reawakening all life, setting all things in action, and dispatching everyone to their duty. Some connect her to planet Venus.

Perkʷū́nos – (Striker” or “Oak God) – Mother Earth and the Sky Father are his parents. The Thunder God wields an axe, hammer, mace, or sword.

He is the one who makes agriculture possible by sending rain. Oak is the most significant tree associated with him. Thursday, the fourth day of the week, is his holy day. He is the MIGHTY SERPENT’S destroyer.

Seh2ul and *Meh1no – (Sun and Moon) – The original Indo-European solar deity appears to have been female, and the Lunar seems to be masculine.

Dʰéǵʰōm – (Earth) or Pleth₂wih₁ (Broad One)- She is a goddess of fertility and the ground. She co-created the Thunder God with Sky Father.

In most Indo-European languages, words denoting her real name are typically related to the word MOTHER. She is linked to fertility and growth and death as the deceased’s ultimate resting place.

Divine Twins ( Reconstruction of the name is not available, lacking Linguistic Evidence) – Only one of them, the son of SKY FATHER, is immortal. The second twin is always the one to die before the first.

The Divine Twins, who were often shown as young men rescuing mortals in combat or at sea, rode the steeds that pulled the sun through the sky and were sometimes shown as horses themselves. They had a sister, the Dawn, who was also depicted as the Sky-daughter God’s in Indo-European mythology. The two brothers are frequently presented as healers and aids who travel in miraculous vehicles to save shipwrecked humanity. They are frequently distinguished: one is shown as a physically powerful and aggressive warrior, while the other is portrayed as a healer who prefers to focus on household responsibilities, agronomic endeavors, or amorous adventures.

Páxusōn – (The Protector” or “Shepherd”) -. He’s the one who stands in the middle. He looks after travelers, traders, and other middlemen. He also protects cattle, which are a source of riches. As a result, he can be prayed to as both a way-opener and a prosperity-giver.

Westyā – (She of the Household) – Hearth Goddess

Kolyos – (The Coverer) – The Goddesses of Death, but it is not the Goddess of the Dead but Death itself. (edited)

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Neopagan not part of the Celtic Realms

These are a few of the god/desses that get mixed in within our Celtic Realms. These are not historically attested. They are more of a modern neopagan thing than a recon one. Now I’m not saying one should not worship them, but one should know the facts.

Druantia – This is a goddess created by Rober Graves in his book The White Goddess. He claims her to be a Gaulish mother/tree Goddess. A goddess of fertility, sexual activities, passion, knowledge, creativity, and protector of trees. He also says she is the Queen of the Druids.

Herne the Hunter – There as been several attempts to connect him to gods and historical figures. He first appeared in 1597, in Shakespeare’s play “The Merry Wives of Windsor.” as the spirit of the Windsor Forest. This is long after Celtic presence in England had been pushed to the frontiers of the region.

Elen of the Ways – Most scholars agree she is based on a historical welsh figure named Elen Lluydog. She has been turned into Mabinogi character, a saint, and to some a goddess.

Many folks like to base her from the paleolithic time and say the cave paintings representations of an antlered goddess is Elen. That is modern fabrications. And now, many folks write about her, and all that does is add more and more to her and nothing that gives us a real background to her. Now I’m not saying she should not be worshiped and all that, just that there is no evidence that she is a goddess of the Celtic Realms. She is a modern invention.

Danu –

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Druids Revival Deities

Ana – The goddess of the planet Earth itself, as distinct from its biosphere, Ana is the mother of Ced and the grandmother of most of the other gods and goddesses; she rules the deep places of the Earth.  Imagine her as an ancient woman with long white hair, dressed in black robes of archaic design, with a long staff in her hands and ornate rings on her fingers.

Beli – The year god who dies and is reborn at the winter solstice, Beli traces out the cycle of seasons as he passes through the stages of his journey from pale infant to strong young god, to lover and mate of the living Earth, to king, to sacrifice, to pale corpse laid out on a bier of the sky. Imagine him at any of these stages, or more generally as a strong virile man with golden hair and beard, wearing a red tunic and cloak ornamented with gold, and carrying a long spear and a golden shield.

Belinus – Another name of Beli, chosen because its seven letters in their greek form, add to 365 in greek gematria 

Ced – The goddess of the Earth’s biosphere, Ced is the primary female expression of the divine in Welsh Druid Lore. Her name means “bounty” or “assistance” in Welsh.  She is the spouse and equal of Celi the sky god, and also by turns the mother, mate, and layer-out of Belinus at the various stages of his yearly journey. Imagine her as a beautiful mature woman with long flowing brown hair, wearing a green gown and a cloak made of every kind of leaves.

Celi – The god of infinite space, Celi is the primary male expression of the divine in Welsh Druid Lore.  His name means “heaven” and he is also called Hen Ddihenydd, the Ancient of Days.  According to Welsh Druid tradition he is hidden from human sight and only reveals himself as pure light.  Imagine him in the form of the three rays of light, / | \ , streaming down from the heavens onto the Earth.

Ceridwen – The goddess of the Moon, Ceridwen – the name means “bent woman” and refers to the shape Americans call “the man in the Moon” and Welsh tradition pictures as an old bent women bending over a cauldron- is the mistress of the lunar current and the keeper of the secrets of Druid initiation.  Imagine her as an old women with gray hair, clad in garments of red, white, black, stirring a steaming cauldron.  

Coel – The god of the life force, Coel is the earthly manifestation of Celi, and has the additional role of god of wild animals and all wilderness places. The fragmentary nursery rhyme about “Old King Cole” seems to be a last dim scrap of folk memory of this god, possibly filtered through stories of a sixth century British king named for him.  Imagine him as a massively built man with wild hair and beard, dressed as a huntsman in russet and dark brown, with stag’s antlers rising from his forehead.

Elen – The young goddess of dawn and springtime, Elen is also associated with the dragon currents that flow through the Earth and the old straight tracks that channel them.  Her legends appear to be filtered through stories about a British princess of the fourth century.  She is also known as Niwalen in her role as goddess of springtime greenery. Imagine her as a maiden with golden hair, clad in a short white tunic, her arms and legs bare, dancing in the forest. 

Esus – The chief of tree spirits and guardian of the forests, Esus derives his name (“lord” in Old Brythonic) from an old Gaulish god, but his role in Druidry seems to have been a result of nineteenth- and twentieth- century Druid visionaries.  He sits in the first fork of the sacred oak and teaches the lore of trees to those who seek him out.  Imagine him as a man of indeterminate age seated in a tree, dressed in brown and green garments that look like bark and leaves. His hands are long, brown, and strong as roots, and his eyes are very bright.

Hesus – Another name for Esus, containing the initial H of Hu representing Esus as the protector and teacher of Druids

Hu – The firstborn of Ced and Celi, Hu Gadarn (Hu the Mighty) is the great Druid god, the master of the element of spirit in all its forms.  He is the owner of two even mightier oxen, the “two calves of the Spotted Cow”;the “spotted cow” is the night spotted with stars, and the two calves are the two equinoxes that trudge implacably around the circle of heaven, driving the turning mill of time.  Imagine him, as a mature man of immense strength with the horns of an ox curving up from hi broad forehead. His hair and beard are black, he wears a robe of sky blue and a cloak as black as midnight, and light streams from him. 

Niwalen – Another name for Elen as goddess of springtime greenery 

Og – Another name for Beli as god of the year 

Sul – The daughter of the Sun god Beli, Sul is the goddess of the threefold fire, the solar fire, the Sun; the telluric fire, the heat within the Earth that warms healing hot springs; and the common fire that blazes on every hearth.  She is the mistress of healing and of all domestic crafts.  See her as an adult woman with golden hair, wearing a white gown, red cloak, and ornaments of gold.

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Here, we will be giving you some of the divination methods we have. Now, these will stay in the Celtic realms. I will not be talking about Futhark, Tarot, or any of those other forms.

Let us understand the word itself divination. The word comes from Latin and has the same root as Divinity. Divinatio basically means consulting the God/dess to aid in guidance or to be inspired by the god/dess. The ancestors believed that the God/desses talk to them in phenomena. That being the flights of birds, the sounds of birds, the thundering sky, to the motions within the cosmos.

Many people pay attention to the cosmic/natural signs around them for reading omens (that’s my form), and that don’t use sortilege, which is any form of divination that uses a set symbol system and interprets them.

Now there are many forms of divination. Each one has its own personality and also varies in the amount of Intuition in the readings.

Extrasensory perception and Intuition are something to research in understanding some of the realms of divination.

So simply put, divination is a way to bring clarity around a question.

It’s the mind of the diviner that provides the link, not the system itself.

Do not try to master many, master one and know all.

Useful Words

Divination – Is the attempt to gain insight into a question or situation.

Diviner – A person who practices divination.

Seer – A perceiver of hidden truth/who sees visions of the future.

Prophet – A prophet is a teacher of known truth/ A person who predicts what will happen in the future.

Prophecy – A prediction of something to come.

Oracle – A person through whom a deity is believed to speak/a shrine in which a God/desses reveals hidden knowledge or the divine purpose through such a person.

Omens – Divine messages from the god/desses.

Obviously, the different traditions/customs will have their wordings with their language defining the roles.

One can go in-depth for all this. The above is a basic understanding

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Coelbren Alphabet

The Coelbren Alphabet was first written about in a book called Coelbren y Beirdd by Taliesin ab lolo around the 1840s. Taliesin ab lolo is the son of Iolo Morganwg. Taliesin ab lolo based everything from his father’s writings, and this book provided information on an ancient welsh Bardic alphabet called Coelbren. He claimed it was authentic, but it is genuinely not authentic.

We don’t know if lolo, in his time, used the Coelbren for Divination.

Now it doesn’t mean there is no value in this system. Most of the forms of divination we have are not ancient, for instance, the Futhark. Sure it was a writing system, but we TRULY do not know if folks used the Futhark like we do today. Now there is a bunch of stuff about Iolo Morganwg, a.k.a. Edward Williams. We will not get into all that here.

Either way, there is a lot of history and interesting ideas surrounding lolo

For more information on this system

The Coelbren Alphabet: The Forgotten Oracle of the Welsh Bards
“by John Michael Greer –

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The Ogam

In the Irish Mythical Cycle Tochmarc Étaíne, A Drui by the name Dalan Takes four wands of the yew and writes the letters of the ogam on them. He then uses them for divination.

The Ogam is tricky to navigate as there is countless info out there, and most of it is misinformation. There is a big divide between Neopagan writers and scholars as even to this day; Neopagan writers reject anything that gets in the way of their narrative.

We must balance scholarly work with modern neo work, and most of what I see is just Neo work. Now again, just like most forms of sortilege it is a modern thing.

Did folks use Ogam as a form of divination? We are uncertain. But we do know it was a writing system.

When and by whom was the Ogam invented, we are unsure. We know the ogam was used as early as the 4th Century AD. There are around 400 inscriptions on stone monuments found from Ireland to Western Britain.

The Ogam originally had 20 letters. These are organized into four aicme (Family). Later on, five more letters were added called the forfeda.

Aicme Beithe

Aicme hÚatha

Aicme Muine

Aicme Ailme

Aicme Forfeda.

The letters collectively are not called Ogam but rather Beith-luis-nin. Ogam refers only to the form of letters or scripts.

Sometimes you will see different variants of the word (Ogham – Modern Irish) (Ogam – Old Irish)

The modern pagan idea of Ogam came from Robert Graves Book The White Goddess, which is very problematic which he paints a very high fantastical image of them. His book very much influences our modern divinatory meanings of them.

I will not get into all the history here as there is so much of it—I’m not here to teach but to point to a way.

Resources are vast in this topic, but I highly suggest the leading ogam scholar Damian McManus his book A Guide to Ogam by Damian McManus.

A Neopagan book thats ok.

Whispers from the Woods: The Lore & Magic of Trees
by Sandra Kynes

You can also read more about the Ogam in these manuscripts, such as.

Auraicept na n-Éces (The Scholars’ Primer)

In Lebor Ogaim (The Ogam Tract)

Lebor Gabála Érenn (The Book Of Invasions)

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We in the Druid Community do not DEAL with any forms of hate. We stand with and for the helpless, the sick, and the weak. We are the voice for the ones with none. We value all the colors of the rainbow that includes the colors of all spiritualities, religions, races,  and sexualities.

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